Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. Despite substantial advances in the understanding of many microbial processes in recent years, the fundamental chemistry underlying these processes is often poorly characterized. For example, the intercellular communication that mediates bacterial biofilm formation, establishment of commensal microbial populations in a host, and cyanobacterial heterocyst differentiation are all driven by microbial-derived phenomena that are still weakly understood at the chemical level. Investigations into such processes are generally hindered by a lack of available tools to connect the underlying chemistry with specific microbial phenotypes. However, imaging mass spectrometry IMS approaches now enable us to begin to connect observations at the phenotypic level with specific changes at the chemical level 1 — 6.
Overview of Mass Spectrometry for Protein Analysis
Effective Use of Mass Spectrometry in the Clinical Laboratory | Clinical Chemistry
Mass spectrometry MS is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. The results are typically presented as a mass spectrum , a plot of intensity as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules , and to elucidate the chemical identity or structure of molecules and other chemical compounds. In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons.
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Mass spectrometry MS is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. The results are typically presented as a mass spectrum , a plot of intensity as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures.
Mass spectrometry , also called mass spectroscopy , analytic technique by which chemical substances are identified by the sorting of gaseous ions in electric and magnetic fields according to their mass-to-charge ratios. The instruments used in such studies are called mass spectrometers and mass spectrographs , and they operate on the principle that moving ions may be deflected by electric and magnetic fields. The two instruments differ only in the way in which the sorted charged particles are detected.